# intro to statistics

this is the super basic stuff that will probably bore a lot of you to tears.
like, I would call this section “stats for dummies”…but that just seems rude.

# calculating descriptive stats

Once you’ve been doing statistics for a while, you tend to take descriptive statistics for granted…mostly because we all use stats programs that just take our raw data and do it for us.

But for all of you who are just starting out, a thorough understanding of descriptive statistics is absolutely essential. So this is a quick post that will start from the ground up on descriptive stats.

# measures of central tendency

## Measures of Central Tendency

In statistics, we have this big collection of raw data from individuals, and we are always trying to describe the data set as a whole. Thus, we use “descriptive” statistics.

Measures of central tendency are commonly used method to describe data sets. Essentially, we are taking this collection of data and trying to explain where the “middle” of the data is. The three main measures of central tendency are the
mean, median, and mode.

Mean: Mean is just our fancy statistical way of saying average, and the calculation is quite simple: you add up all of the raw scores, and then divide by the number of scores that you added together.So let’s say that you bowl a lot, and you want to know your average score for the last five games you bowled. Your scores for each game were 150, 175, 250, 210, 195.

In order to calculate this, you would add the scores for each of those five games (150+175+250+210+195=980).

Now, you divide the sum of raw scores by the number of games (980/5 = 196). So your bowling average for the past 5 games was 196.

Median: The median is simply the “middle” number in the data set. If you rank your scores in order from high to low, the one that falls right in the middle represents the median. So if we refer back to our bowling example, the median is 195 because that is the “middle” score on the number line.

150     175     195     210     250

Mode: The mode is the most common score/value in the data set. In our bowling example, all of the scores have a frequency of 1 (i.e., the only occur one time), so there is no mode. But let’s say that we are talking about the age of high school seniors (see below). In this sample of ten students, the most common age is 17.5…So mode = 17.5.

17       17.25       17.5       17.5        17.5       18       18       18.5       18.5       19

# statistical mediation – the concept

Warning: This is a video detailing the underlying theory and concepts of statistical mediation models. This video will not teach you how to compute mediation models or how to execute them in Mplus and/or SPSS.

Video #1 – The actual material
Video #2 – A little quiz

https://mix.office.com/embed/nhfmduyfwo5s

# which analysis should I use?

Most people I know struggle with figuring out which statistical analysis they are supposed to be using…Seriously. Like, most graduate students I know still have problems with it and so do many professors.

So here’s a little cheat sheet. It won’t answer your question if you’re getting too complex, but for all you intro-to-stats folks out there…this should do the trick.

Oh and another thing…Using the cheat-sheet is better, plus you can print it out. But I made this “interactive” form for those of you who are reading-averse and/or just don’t trust your chart-reading skills.

# Lesson #1 Populations and Samples

Do you know what a population is? Do you know what a sample is? Do you know which one gives you parameters and which one gives you statistics?

If not, have no fear. This video basically breaks it down to a kindergarten level…So here you go.